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  • In different situations of communication people use different manners of expressing their thoughts, which, in the Russian linguistic tradition, are usually called styles or functional styles (функциональные стили), and in the linguistic tradition abroad – registers of speech (регистры речи). Stylistics is a branch of linguistics that studies the various functional styles of speech and also the various expressive means and devices (экспрессивные средства и приемы) of language. Apart from that, some linguists apply the term 'stylistics' to the study of various stylistic peculiarities of the language of works of fiction
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  • Academician V. V. Vinogradov was among the first linguists to describe the different styles of speech in respect to their functions (= aims). He distinguished, in particular:
    1) the colloquial style, which has the function of communicating (функция общения);
    2) the official and scientific styles, which have the function of informing (функция сообщения);
    3) the publicist (публицистический) and belle-lettres (художественно-беллетристический) styles, which have the function of producing an emotional impact (функция эмоционального воздействия) on the listeners.
    This classification undoubtedly reflects certain differences between speech styles, although its criteria for the opposition of functions are rather confusing. Thus, for example, the functions of informing and communicating are present in any style (colloquial, official, scientific, publicist, belles-lettres), as speech always contains some information and is used for communicating.
  • Alliteration is a device based on repetition of the same or similar sounds at close distance, which makes speech more expressive.
  • Publicist (oratory) style requires eloquence (красноречие), and such works are often ornamented with stylistic devices and figures of speech (see Part 3). Some authors of publicist works may prefer verbosity (многословие), others – brevity of expression, often resembling epigrams.
    There are various genres in which the publicist style is employed, such as public speeches, essays, pamphlets, articles published in newspapers or magazines, radio and TV commentaries, etc.
  • Such communication requires clarity in the presentation of ideas, its aim is to convince the readers/listeners of the truth of the ideas expressed, and at the same time to produce an emotional impact (impression) on the audience.
  • y esteemed members of the conference!;
  • That's a pretty kettle of fish
  • I saw him there, I say 'Where' ye going?' He runs off, I run after him. He turns the corner, me too. He isn't there. Where's he now? I can't think.... (note also the rather frequent change from the Past tense to the Present, in addition to the absence of
  • связь) between the parts of composite sentences or between separate sentences. Complex constructions with non-finite forms are rarely used. Note the neutral style in the following extract:
  • The syntax of colloquial speech is also characterized by the preferable use of simple sentences or by asyndetic connection (= absence of conjunctions, бессоюзная
  • I'll get (= fetch) the children from school; It's getting (= becoming) dark; He got (= was) robbed in the street at night; I got (= caused) him to help me with the work; I got the radio working at last (= brought it to the state of working); Wi11 you get (= give, bring) the children their supper tonight?; I didn't get (= hear) what you said; You got (= understood) my answer wrong; I wanted to speak to the director, but only got (= managed to speak) to his secretary; Will you get (= answer) the phone?; Can you get (= tune in) to London on your radio?
  • I got (= received) a letter today; Where did you get (= buy) those shoes?; We don't get (= have) much rain here in summer, I got (= caught) flu' last month; We got (= took) the six-o'clock train from London; I got into (= entered) the house easily; Where has my pen got to (= disappeared)?; We got (= arrived) home late; Get (=put) your hat on!; I can't get (= fit) into my old jeans; Get (= throw) the cat out of the house!; I'll get (= punish) you, just you wait!; We got (= passed) through the customs without any checking; I've got up to (= reached) the last chapter of the book
  • they can be used in any style, they are not emotionally coloured and have no additional evaluating elements; such are the words child, father, begin, leave/go away, continue in the examples above.
  • Stylistically neutral words usually constitute the main member in a group of synonyms, the so-called synonymic dominant (синонимическая доминанта):